【摘要】 目的 探讨t(8；21)急性髓系白血病(acute myeloid leukemia，AML)的临床特点及预后，提高对t(8；21)AML的认识。 方法 2010年5月收治1例t(8；21)AML患者，对其临床资料并复习相关文献进行分析。患者因乏力、皮下瘀斑入院，查体发现患者有胸骨压痛，脾肋下3 cm触及，血常规:白细胞80.37×109/L，异常细胞 23%，取患者骨髓液行形态学、流式细胞术检测及染色体核型检测。 结果 患者诊断为急性粒细胞白血病部分分化型(AML-M2b)，AML1/ETO融合基因阳性，染色体核型分析t(8；21)(q22；q22)。 结论 t(8；21)AML是一类较为特殊的急性髓系白血病，在诊断时需寻找疾病的预后因素并进行分层，实施个体化治疗。【Abstract】 Objective To obsrve the clinical features and prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21). Methods The clinical data of one patient with t (8; 21) AML diagnosed in May 2010 was retrospectively analyzed. The chief complaints of the patient were malaise and ecchymosis. The physical examinations revealed sternum pain and splenomegaly; blood routine examination showed that the peripheral WBC count was 80.37×109/L, and the abnormal cells were 23%. Bone marrow samples were collected to perform the morphologic test, flow cytometry analysis and chromosome analysis. Results The patient was diagnosed as AML with maturation (AML-M2) with positive AML1/ETO fusion gene and translocation (8; 21) (q22; q22). Conclusion AML with t (8; 21) is different with other types of AML; patients with AML with t (8; 21) need individualized treatment.